This paper examines the relationship that France has with NATO through its policy of nuclear deterrence in a European context, with a focus on France’s most recent “White Paper”.
The M51 missile failure: where does this leave French nuclear modernization?
The latest M51 ballistic missile test was a failure. The missile blew up minutes after emerging from the French submarine, Le Vigilant, in the Audierne Bay (off the coast of Brittany) on May 5. French leaders have always claimed that France has never participated directly in the Cold War arms race; but, the scale of its current modernization program of nuclear weapon systems, running for over fifteen years, is massive.
The French White Paper on Defence and National Security
The fourth French White Paper on Defence has just been unveiled on April 29th (five months delayed). In the end, it is an unremarkable, short document, whose political and military value may be questioned.
Sarkozy and French nuclear deterrence
France has presented a disarmament plan focused on reduced missile numbers, a fissile material cut-off, a test ban and greater transparency.
The French nuclear ‘dissuader’
Considers the French defense White Paper