Officials from China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States (“P5”) held their third special forum since 2009 to discuss nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, this time in Washington, DC. Separately, representatives from Iran and the P5 plus Germany, have met at various levels without producing a breakthrough over Iran’s nuclear program amid rising tensions in the Middle East.
In the United States, costs around the nuclear arsenal and questions about the triad are coming up in critical places against a backdrop of continuing economic worries and elections this fall.
P5/NPT NUCLEAR WEAPONS STATES (NWS)
- Will the NWS fail to support the NWFZ…again?
Paul Ingram, July 9, 2012
- The P5 Conferences and the Importance of Transparency
Chris Lindborg, June 25, 2012
- Backgrounder on P5 conference: Washington and the future
Cormac Mc Garry, June 25, 2012
- Obama and Romney on U.S. Foreign Policy
Rachel Staley, July 23, 2012
- Trinity nuclear test anniversary – U.S. first to test, but will it be the last to fully support a ban?
Chris Lindborg, July 16, 2012
- Threat of Sequestration
Anne Penketh, June 04, 2012
- Anglo-American (In)Dependence
Rachel Staley, July 02, 2012
- Dissecting the DDPR
Ted Seay, July 5, 2012
- NATO discusses WMD and P5+1 prepare for talks with Iran
Rachel Staley, June 11, 2012
- Book review of “Iranian Nuclear Crisis: A Memoir”
Cormac Mc Garry, August 8, 2012
- Iran sanctions bill
Anne Penketh, July 30, 2012
- Time for progress on Iran talks
Anne Penketh, June 18, 2012
- Russia’s Iran Game
Shivani Handa, June 17, 2012
BASIC TRIDENT COMMISSION
Bruno Tertrais, June 25, 2012
This third briefing from the BASIC Trident Commission evaluates lessons from past cooperation attempts between London and Paris, and investigates the impact of present arrangements. Dr. Tertrais also looks at the prospects for future cooperation and what it could mean for possible future nuclear reductions.
The Commission is still collecting evidence from interested parties, but is soon to start drafting its final report, due to be released in early 2013. For more information, visit the web pages of the BASIC Trident Commission: https://basicint.org/tridentcommission
“P5 Conference” held in Washington, DC
Arms control representatives convened a third P5 Conference on June 27-29, in Washington, DC. Representatives from China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States considered all three pillars of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)-covering nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. They discussed how to move forward a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), how to discourage abuse of the NPT withdrawal provision, and how to quicken the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT).
Progress was made on beginning a China-led working group to develop a shared glossary of key nuclear terms to increase mutual understanding. Representatives also used the meeting to continue sharing perspectives on “how to support a successful conference in 2012 on a Middle East zone free of weapons of mass destruction.” Additionally, the P5 agreed to hold a fourth conference in the context of the next NPT Preparatory Committee. Previous meetings were held in London in 2009 and Paris in 2011.
- Third P5 Conference: Implementing the NPT
U.S. State Department, Media Note, June 29, 2012
- Senior Chinese, US and UK Experts Discuss Nuclear Disarmament: Maintaining Strategic Stability on the Path to Nuclear Zero
CNS Report on panel discussion, July 18, 2012
Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
Four of the five NPT nuclear weapons states (P5) have said that they are not ready to formally support the Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Bangkok. They intended to sign the protocol of accession alongside China on July 12. However, according to Kyodo News, the United Kingdom said “possible future threats” could require the passage of “sensitive materials” through the zone, and France and Russia also issued reservations about the treaty, citing “authority to protect themselves” from nuclear attack. The United States backed all of the submitted reservations. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is aiming for the four remaining official nuclear weapons states to drop their reservations by the organization’s next summit in November. The main treaty among the ASEAN countries entered into force in 1997.
The recent cost escalation of the B61 Life Extension Program (LEP) was cited as a growing concern during a Senate Appropriations Subcommittee hearing on the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. The National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) cost estimate for the B61 Life Extension Program (LEP) has doubled, now reaching a total of $8 billion. Sen. Dianne Feinstein (Democrat-California) who was presiding over the hearing, disclosed that the Department of Defense’s Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation (CAPE) office has produced an even higher estimate, at $10 billion. After adding the expense of a new guided tail kit, each bomb may cost upwards of $28 million each, according to an estimate by Hans Kristensen of the Federation of American Scientists. The B61 serves both strategic and tactical aircraft. About 200 of the 400 estimated B61 bombs are based in Europe as part of NATO’s nuclear sharing arrangements.
Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter said on August 1 during a House Armed Services Committee hearing that sequestration would negatively affect the research and development work for the Ohio-class submarine replacement program (SSBN-X), with the potential for eventually slowing down the overall program.
The Obama administration has reportedly completed the Presidential Nuclear Guidance, a process which includes determining the future size of the United States’ launch-ready nuclear weapons forces. The Associated Press was reporting that the process may lead to a new number for the deployed nuclear arsenal between 1,000 and 1,100 weapons. Although the guidance has been anticipated for months, the administration might wait for an official announcement until after the November presidential election.
Meanwhile, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) released an unclassified report on changes in nuclear weapons targeting since 1991. The report concludes that:
“The fundamental objectives of U.S. nuclear deterrence policy have remained largely consistent since 1991, even as the threat environment and the size of the nuclear weapons stockpile have changed. The current process for developing nuclear targeting and employment guidance has remained consistent. However, the structure of the nuclear war plan, and the categories and number of targets in the plan, have changed.”
An 82-year-old nun and two other peace activists breached security at the Y-12 nuclear weapons plant in Oakridge, Tennessee on July 28. The protesters reportedly broke through three security fences and reached a storage warehouse for bomb-grade uranium. The breach has led to security reviews and the temporary shut-down of operations at the plant.
Michael Krepon, Arms Control Wonk, August 12, 2012
- New charge has anti-war protesters facing up to 10 years for breaching nuclear weapons plant
AP via The Washington Post, August 9, 2012
- U.S. Strategic Command 2012 Deterrence Symposium
Remarks of Rose Gottemoeller, Acting Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, in Omaha, Nebraska, August 9, 2012
- U.S. general asks cut in nuclear stockpile
Bryan Bender, Boston Globe, August 6, 2012
- Hearing on Sequestration Implementation Options and the Effects on National Defense: Administration Perspectives
House Armed Services Committee, August 1, 2012
- Extended Nuclear Deterrence in Northeast Asia
Jeffrey Lewis, Nautilus Institute Special Report, August 1, 2012
- Nonproliferation and Disarmament: What’s the Connection and What Does that Mean for U.S. Security and Obama Administration Policy?
House Subcommittee on Strategic Forces hearing, August 1, 2012
- Strategic Weapons: Changes in the Nuclear Weapons Targeting Process Since 1991
United States Government Accountability Office, July 21, 2012
- B61-12: NNSA’s Gold-Plated Nuclear Bomb Project
Hans Kristensen, FAS Strategic Security Blog, July 26, 2012
- Do We Need ICBMs?
Jeffrey Lewis, Arms Control Wonk, July 19, 2012
- 13 minutes to doomsday
Editorial Board, The Washington Post, July 8, 2012
- AP sources: US moving on nuke arms cuts decision
Robert Burns, AP via Yahoo! News, July 3, 2012
- Obama Close to Deciding on Size of Launch-Ready Nuke Arsenal
Global Security Newswire, July 3, 2012
- U.S. Releases Updated Plutonium Inventory Report
NNSA Press Release, June 29, 2012
- House Passes Key Anti-Nuclear Terrorism Legislation; Senate Up Next
Kingston Reif, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Nukes of Hazard blog, June 28, 2012
- Tracking Pit Production
Stephen Young, All Things Nuclear (Union of Concerned Scientists blog), June 25, 2012
- The Incredible Shrinking SSBN(X)
Commander Michael J. Dobbs, ISN (Ret.), Proceedings Magazine, June 2012, Vol. 138/6/1,312
The new Borey-class ballistic missile submarines are beginning to enter service. Russia plans to have two operational boats by the end of 2012, and at least ten of these boats operating by 2020. The Russian navy will initially operate the two Borey-class submarines as part of the Northern fleet, and then move the boats to the Pacific. Each submarine may carry up to 16 new Bulava missiles with a range of about 8,000km/5,000 miles; with each missile capable of holding 6-10 warheads. Additionally, top military officials are predicting the planned long-range “PAK DA” strategic bomber may be ready by 2020, five years earlier than originally projected. During a meeting on national defense at the end of July, President Vladimir Putin said, “By 2020 the share of up-to-date arms in the strategic nuclear weapons [arsenal] should reach 75-85 percent, in the aerospace defense system – at least 70 percent.”
- Putin pushes nuclear, space defense reform
RT News, July 26, 2012
- New Russian Bomber Could Enter Service in 2020
Global Security Newswire, July 2, 2012
- Russian Missile, Sub to Join Active Force
Global Security Newswire, June 29, 2012
- Prospective Air Complex for Long Range Aviation (PAK DA)
Global Security.org (page last updated March 7, 2012)
The Scottish National Party (SNP) is considering dropping its opposition to joining NATO, should Scotland eventually become independent, citing Denmark and Norway as possible role models for an independent Scotland that would be part of the Alliance without hosting nuclear weapons. The SNP strongly opposes nuclear weapons while Scotland currently bases UK Trident nuclear forces, which are also considered linked to NATO’s overall strategic deterrent forces. However, the SNP was facing challenges by SNP Scottish Members of Parliament who are opposed to changing the 30-year policy against NATO membership. The SNP plans to choose its formal position on NATO membership in October during its party conference, with a referendum on Scottish independence scheduled for 2014.
The Ministry of Defence has released data indicating that the United Kingdom’s nuclear-armed submarine fleet suffered 74 fires over the past 25 years, with one taking place on a docked vessel. The government contends that none of the blazes ever had an impact on nuclear safety or the ability to operate the submarines.
The Ministry of Defence signed a 15-year contract with ABL Alliance for support of the Trident strategic weapon system at the Clyde naval base in Scotland. The ABL Alliance consists of AWE, Babcock, and Lockheed Martin UK Strategic Systems, and will provide support at Faslane and Coulport, the two primary sites at the Clyde base, where the submarines are kept and the warheads are stored, respectively.
- NATO rebels don’t go far enough, says MSP as rifts deepen within SNP
Andrew Whitaker, The Scotsman, August 10, 2012
- Nuclear weapons role in Scotland for private firms
Press Association, The Guardian, July 27, 2012
- MOD signs Trident support contract
UK Ministry of Defence, Defence Policy and Business News, July 27, 2012
- Alarm about lack of a plan for Trident if UK breaks up
Michael Settle, The Herald (Scotland), July 24, 2012
- Why nuclear weapons and NATO membership are not separate issues
Lord Robertson, letter to The Herald (Scotland), July 21, 2012 (Response to The Herald View from July 17, 2012)
- British Ballistic Missile Subs Endure 74 Blazes over Quarter Century
Global Security Newswire, July 9, 2012
- Minister defends £1.1bn nuclear submarine deal
BBC News, June 18, 2012
- SNP set to drop opposition to NATO
Carola Hoyos, Financial Times, June 17, 2012
No further progress was reported over the North Korea nuclear stand-off, although North Korean and U.S. officials met unofficially during the first half of July to discuss the possibility of reviving the February 29th food aid deal. The deal was cancelled in April after North Korea attempted to launch a satellite, which violated Pyongyang’s promise to halt work on its nuclear and missile programs as part of the arrangement.
Speculation rose again over a possible imminent third North Korean nuclear test, based on several indicators including satellite images and seismic data. Other developments pointed to Pyongyang’s intentions to move ahead with development of a nuclear weapons program. Pyongyang has reportedly been procuring materials from several sources, allegedly including China. Recent reports citing a North Korean Worker’s Party document indicated that before he died Kim Jong Il authorized the large scale production of nuclear weapons using uranium.
- Update on North Korean Light Water Reactor Construction Project
David Albright and Robert Avagyan, ISIS Reports, August 14, 2012
- North Korea capable of new nuclear test ‘within two weeks’
Julian Borger, The Guardian Global Security blog, August 9, 2012
- Contemplating a third nuclear test in North Korea
Frank V. Pabian and Siegfried Hecker, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, August 6, 2012
- Ex-North Korean Leader Authorized Mass Assembly of HEU Warheads: Report
Global Security Newswire, July 2, 2012
- China and DPRK Sanctions-Busting
Mark Hibbs, Arms Control Wonk, June 24, 2012
After a series of meetings between the P5+1 and Iran, hardly any progress has been made. Following an unsuccessful Moscow session there was a lower level “technical” meeting in Istanbul meant to clarify the parties’ respective technical views of Iranian nuclear issues. This led to scheduling another technical discussion in Turkey on July 24. Iran explained a desire to keep the discussions active, preferring to have a high-level meeting at least once every three months. This might be a sign that Iran is holding out for a change in negotiations following the November U.S. presidential election. Another meeting has been planned for the end of August.
Meanwhile, the U.S. and Iran have been brandishing their capabilities in the Persian Gulf. The United States continues to add forces such as minesweepers to the region while Iran tests short and medium range missiles. Iranian leaders were claiming that some of these missiles can hit land command centers and naval vessels, but David Wright of the Union of Concerned Scientists has noted how their ballistic missiles are not that accurate. Moreover, the Iranian parliament has been looking into the proposition of blocking any oil shipments through the Straits of Hormuz if Iranian oil is blocked.
The United States continues to work on furthering sanctions against Iran, making it harder for Iran to receive payment from any oil it can sell. Concurrently, the Obama administration imposed penalties on two more banks that allegedly act as surrogates for sanctioned Iranian entities and expanded restrictions on the purchase of Iranian petrochemical products such as methanol and xylene. The EU sanctions exemption for contracts expired on July 1, meaning that all bans were now to be in force against Iranian oil imports, and also against insurance applicable to the transport of Iranian oil. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and other leaders have said publicly that the sanctions have been hurting the economy, but they have vowed to press ahead with the nuclear enrichment program. The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) analyzed sanctions against Iran and concluded that whereas sanctions have not greatly affected uranium enrichment, they have curtailed the development of long-range missiles.
Satellite photos taken by the Institute for Science and International Security this past spring and summer show an apparent final clean-up of the Parchin military test site. Iran raised suspicions by its recent refusal to allow IAEA access to Parchin, and denies accusations that it has been attempting to hide evidence that would point to past work related to the development of a nuclear weapons program. Former experts, including a former IAEA official, have also questioned the relevancy of the IAEA’s recent focus on particular aspects of the site.
Israeli officials led by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu have been making an apparent high-profile push aimed toward influencing U.S. policy, warning that sanctions will not stop Iran’s nuclear program and that world powers should declare the nuclear talks a failure. Defense Minister Ehud Barak said that the United States has new intelligence that increases urgency around Iran’s nuclear program, specifically suggesting that it would be more difficult than originally anticipated to determine whether Iran was moving toward building a nuclear weapon. Additional reports out of Israel were indicating that Israel has been considering a military strike against Iran before November. U.S. officials sought to clarify the speculation around the reports, saying that the United States does not have indications that Iran has taken a definite decision to build nuclear weapons nor saw any reason for a new or marked increase in the urgency of the situation around the nuclear program in particular.
- Israel and Iran
The New York Times editorial, August 13, 2012
- Can We Still Tell If Iran Decides to Build A Nuclear Bomb?
Micah Zenko, The Atlantic, August 6, 2012
- Iran Exaggerates Missile Accuracy
David Wright, All Things Nuclear, Union of Concerned Scientists, August 4, 2012
- Iran tests upgraded version of short-range missile, says can hit sea targets
AP via The Washington Post, August 4, 2012
- Iran to Join New Multilateral Nuclear Meeting
Global Security Newswire, August 3, 2012
- No imminent threat of a nuclear-armed Iran, experts say
Carol J. Williams, Global Focus, World Now, Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2012
- The Case for Continued Engagement with Iran
Mary Kaszynski, The Diplomat, August 2, 2012
- Cleanup Activity at Suspected Parchin Test Site Appears Complete: Site Considerably Altered
David Albright and Robert Avagyan, ISIS Reports, August 1, 2012
- The Iranian Nuclear Dispute: Origins and Current Options
Hossein Mousavian, Arms Control Today, July/August 2012
- The Rocky Road of Nuclear Diplomacy with Iran
Olli Heinonen, Arms Control Today, July/August 2012
- Why Iran Should Get the Bomb
Kenneth N. Waltz, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2012
- Eight Reasons Why Waltz Theory On Nuclear Iran is Wrong
Hossein Mousavian and Kaveh Afrasiabi, Al-Monitor, July 16, 2012
- Deal Struck to Tighten Sanctions Against Iran
AP via The New York Times, July 31, 2012
- Iran sanctions halt long-range ballistic-missile development
International Institute for Strategic Studies, July 13, 2012
- Senior General: U.S. Atomic Arsenal Could Deter a Nuclear-Armed Iran
Global Security Newswire, July 12, 2012
- Thinking about a Poly-Nuclear Middle East
Christopher Ford, New Paradigms Forum, July 9, 2012
- Full Text of Iran’s Proposals to Six World Powers in Moscow Talks
Fars News Agency, July 7, 2012
- Iran Seeks Sustained Dialogue
Barbara Slavin, The Back Channel, Al-Monitor, July 4, 2012
- Iran Nuclear Negotiations: What’s Next after Moscow?
Greg Thielmann, Iran Nuclear Brief, Arms Control Association, June 28, 2012
- Kelley on Parchin
Jeffrey Lewis, Arms Control Wonk, June 15, 2012
India continued a series of nuclear-capable missile tests, including the land-based Agni 1 with a range of 700km/435 miles and the K-15, India’s first submarine-fired high-altitude missile with a range of 750km/466 miles. India also announced plans to work with Russia to test experimental hypersonic cruise missiles within five years. India’s first nuclear-powered submarine, the INS Arihant, eventually to be armed with nuclear weapons, was set for its first sea trials. However, completion of the vessel is reportedly months behind schedule.
According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists’ most recent assessment on India’s nuclear arsenal, released in July, India has enough weapons-grade plutonium for about 100-130 nuclear warheads. However, available information pertinent to nuclear-capable delivery vehicles leads to a lower estimate of about 80-100 nuclear warheads in India’s arsenal.
A Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report from the end of June indicates that Pakistan is elevating its nuclear posture, in particular by continuing with the production of plutonium for atomic warheads as well as increasing the deployment of delivery vehicles.
Western states are pressuring China to address concerns about its plans to help Pakistan expand a nuclear power plant. China has longstanding nuclear ties to Pakistan and is planning to provide two more reactors to the Chashma nuclear power complex.
- India tests nuclear-ready missile
UPI, August 9, 2012
- Pakistan Might Lower Threshold for Nuke Use Against India, Report Says
Global Security Newswire, August 9, 2012
- Work on Indian Ballistic Missile Sub Running Behind Schedule
Global Security Newswire, August 8, 2012
- India’s First Nuclear Submarine
AFP via Defense News, August 7, 2012
- Indian nuclear forces, 2012
Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July/August 2012, Vol. 68, No. 4, p. 96-101
- Indian Agni 1 Missile Flies in Trial
Global Security Newswire, July 13, 2012
- Testing of India-Russia Hypersonic Cruise Missile May Come in 2017
Global Security Newswire, June 29, 2012
- West worried by China-Pakistan atomic ties: sources
Fredrik Dahl, Reuters, June 27, 2012
- Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues
Paul K. Kerr, and Mary Beth Nikitin, Congressional Research Service Report available on the website of the Federation of American Scientists, June 26, 2012
- India to Protect Major Cities From Ballistic Missiles
Global Security Newswire, June 25, 2012
The U.S. Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block 1B interceptor completed its second successful intercept under controlled conditions. The SM-3 Block 1B is set to be deployed to Romania in an Aegis Ashore system in 2015 as part of wider U.S. and NATO plans for ballistic missile defense in Europe. Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski has said that he wants his country to pursue the development of its own missile defense system, within this wider missile defense architecture. The Polish system would defend against shorter-range threats, whereas the system under the U.S. plans for a European Phased Adaptive Approach is officially focused on defending against threats from the Middle East.
- Polish Missile Defense Plans Put Poland First
Michal Baranowski and Jacob Foreman, Warsaw Business Journal, August 13, 2012
- Poland Looks to Germany, France For Aid With Missile Defense
Global Security Newswire, August 13, 2012
- Fate of Missile Defense Chief Patrick O’Reilly Still Unclear
Luis Martinez, ABC News National Security blog, August 8, 2012
- Poland wants own segment in U.S. missile defense
AP, August 6, 2012
- Admiral Named To Take Command Of Missile Defense Agency
Tony Capaccio, Bloomberg News, August 6, 2012
- Missile Control: An Interview With Deputy Assistant Secretary Of State Vann Van Diepen
Interviewed by Kelsey Davenport, Daniel Horner, and Daryl G. Kimball, Arms Control Today, July/August 2012
- Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities
Document available via website of Reaching Critical Will, July 27, 2012
- The Failures of Missile Defense
Philip Coyle, The National Interest, July 26, 2012
- Open Microphone: What’s Behind President Obama’s Missile Defense Comments?
Kim R. Holmes, Ph.D. , Rebeccah Heinrichs, Baker Spring and Jeff Kueter, Heritage Foundation Research Lecture, July 24, 2012
- Missile shield may spark China nuclear upgrade: officer
Reuters, via CNBC, July 18, 2012
- U.S. ‘building missile defense station in Qatar’
AFP, July 17, 2012
- Never Mind: Military Doesn’t Think Iran’s Missiles Will Reach U.S. After All
Robert Beckhusen, Danger Room, Wired, July 12, 2012
- Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
Ronald O’Rourke, Congressional Research Service Report via the website of the Federation of American Scientists, July 2, 2012
- Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress
Ronald O’Rourke, Congressional Research Service Report via the website of the Federation of American Scientists, June 29, 2012
- New U.S. Missile Interceptor Destroys Target in Second Successful Test
Global Security Newswire, June 27, 2012
- Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Second Successful Intercept Flight Test
MDA News Release, June 27, 2012
- Vital Interdependence (on Russian-U.S. missile defense cooperation)
Kevin Ryan and Simon Saradzhyan of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Op-Ed, Russia in Global Affairs, June 24, 2012
- France Could Eliminate Nukes to Save Money: Ex-Officials
Global Security Newswire, July 19, 2012
- Will Austerity Prompt Nuclear Disarmament? (focuses on French arsenal)
Julio Godoy, IPS, July 18, 2012
- Dutch Parliament Says No to the F-35
Kingston Reif, Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Nukes of Hazard blog, July 9, 2012
- MPs back call to cancel new fighter jet, next cabinet will decide
DutchNews.nl, July 6, 2012
- The 2012 Conference on a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Free Zone in the Middle East: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities
Bilal Y. Saab, James Martin Center for Non-Proliferation Studies, July 31, 2012
- Iran, the Bomb, and U.S. Public Opinion
Stewart M. Patrick, The Internationalist Blog, Council on Foreign Relations, July 16, 2012
Nuclear Security and Cooperation
- Persuading Countries to Forgo Nuclear Fuel-Making: What History Suggests
Richard Cleary, Chapter 4 of “Moving Beyond Pretense,” NPEC, August 13, 2012
- SILEX and proliferation
R. Scott Kemp, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July 30, 2012
- NNSA Announces Elimination of 450 Metric Tons of Russian Weapons Highly Enriched Uranium
Press Release, NNSA, July 9, 2012
- U.S., Europe Approve Start of Four New Nuclear Security Projects
Global Security Newswire, July 3, 2012
- U.S.-Russian Partnership for Advancing a Nuclear Security Agenda
Anton Khlopkov and Elena Sokova, eds., CNS, CESS, VCDNP Report, June 2012
- Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer Paul K. Kerr and Mary Beth Nikitin, Congressional Research Service Report via the website of the Federation of American Scientists, June 19, 2012
- Nuclear righteousness
Robert Koehler, Chicago Tribune, August 9, 2012
- From Hiroshima to Disarmament
Rebecca Johnson, Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, August 6, 2012
- The single multilateral disarmament negotiating forum?
Beatrice Fihn, Reaching Critical Will CD Reports, July 31, 2012
- Beyond Nuclear Denial
William Hartung, Huffington Post, July 9, 2012
Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
- The Arms Race that Won’t Happen
Steve Chapman, Reason, July 9, 2012
- Fighting nuclear proliferation on the high seas
Kristin Margosian, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July 2, 2012
- The Next Arms Race
Henry D. Sikolski, ed., Strategic Studies Institute Book, July 2012
- Living With Nuclear Outliers
Robert S. Litwak, The New York Times, June 25, 2012
- Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI)
Mary Beth Nikitin, Congressional Research Service Report via the website of the Federation of American Scientists, June 15, 2012
- Nuclear Suppliers Group: Don’t Rush New Membership
Marks Hibbs, Toby Dalton, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, June 14, 2012
- Unleashing the Nuclear Watchdog: Strengthening and Reform of the IAEA
Trevor Findlay, Centre for International Governance Innovation, June 2012
Contributions from Richard Abott, Cormac Mc Garry, Chris Lindborg, Rachel Staley, BASIC